PowerShell – Create local user and add them to administrator group

Creating a local user in a windows server and adding them to local administrator group seems to be a simple task. However, when you have to add many users, the manual task becomes very tedious.

The obvious solution is automation. We shall use PowerShell scripting to achieve this. Below is the script that we can use to run. This script will create local users and add them local administrator group.

 

# Create an array to contain user name
$user_list = @("aabb","bbcc","ccdd")

# Create an array to contain user full name
$user_fullname_list = @("aa bb", "bb cc", "cc dd")

# Iterate over the user names
for($i=0; $i -lt $user_list.Length; $i++){

# Create the users
 $Computer = [ADSI]"WinNT://$Env:COMPUTERNAME,Computer"
 $LocalAdmin = $Computer.Create("User", $user_list[$i])
 $LocalAdmin.SetPassword("Password01")
 $LocalAdmin.SetInfo()
 $LocalAdmin.FullName = $user_fullname_list[$i]
 $LocalAdmin.SetInfo()
 $LocalAdmin.UserFlags = 64 + 65536 # ADS_UF_PASSWD_CANT_CHANGE + ADS_UF_DONT_EXPIRE_PASSWD
 $LocalAdmin.SetInfo()

# Add the users to administrators group
 $group = [ADSI]"WinNT://$Env:COMPUTERNAME/Administrators,group"
 $group.Add("WinNT://"+$Env:COMPUTERNAME+"/"+$user_list[$i])

}

 

Further enhancement, is to save the user_list and user_fullname_list into a text file and then read the data from the files into the script.

 

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Azure – Collecting performance metrics for Azure virtual machines

Azure Monitor provides several ways to interact with metrics, including charting them in the portal, accessing them through the REST API, or querying them using PowerShell or CLI.

In this blog, we shall learn how to fetch the metrics for our Azure Virtual Machines using PowerShell. The script that I provide can be used as a utility to generate quick reports.

Below is the script:

 

<#
AUTHOR:
Manjunath Rao
DATE:
February 21, 2018
DESCRIPTION:
The script will generate performance metrics (as recorded by Azure agent) from Azure virtual machines and then populate into an excel sheet.
REFERENCE:
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/monitoring-and-diagnostics/monitoring-supported-metrics
#>
$ErrorActionPreference = “SilentlyContinue”
# Login to Azure Account
try
{
Login-AzureRmAccount -ErrorAction Stop
}
catch
{
# The exception lands in [Microsoft.Azure.Commands.Common.Authentication.AadAuthenticationCanceledException]
Write-Host “User Cancelled The Authentication” -ForegroundColor Yellow
exit
}
# Prompting the user to select the subscription
Get-AzureRmSubscription | Out-GridView -OutputMode Single -Title “Please select a subscription” | ForEach-Object {$selectedSubscriptionID = $PSItem.SubscriptionId}
Write-Host “You have selected the subscription: $selectedSubscriptionID. Proceeding with fetching the inventory. `n” -ForegroundColor green
# Setting the selected subscription
Select-AzureRmSubscription -SubscriptionId $selectedSubscriptionID
# Get the list of resource groups
$resourcegroup_list = (get-azurermresourcegroup).resourcegroupname
try{
# Create an Excel COM Object
$excel = New-Object -ComObject excel.application
}catch{
Write-Host “Something went wrong in creating excel. Make sure you have MSOffice installed to access MSExcel. Please try running the script again. `n” -ForegroundColor Yellow
}
# Create a Workbook
$workbook = $excel.Workbooks.Add()
# Creating a directory overrides if any directory exists with the same name
Write-Host “Creating a directory: C:\AzurePerformanceMetrics. This operation will override if you have a directory with the same name. `n” -ForegroundColor Yellow
New-Item C:\AzurePerformanceMetrics -Type Directory -Force
Write-Host “Creating the Performance Metrics worksheet…” -ForegroundColor Green
# Adding worksheet
$workbook.Worksheets.Add()
# Creating the “Virtual Machine” worksheet and naming it
$VirtualMachineWorksheet = $workbook.Worksheets.Item(1)
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Name = ‘Virtual Machine perf metrics’
# Headers for the worksheet
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,1) = ‘Resource Group Name’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,2) = ‘VM Name’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,3) = ‘Location’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,4) = ‘Percentage CPU’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,5) = ‘Units’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,6) = ‘Network IN’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,7) = ‘Units’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,8) = ‘Network Out’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,9) = ‘Units’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,10) = ‘Disk Read Bytes’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,11) = ‘Units’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,12) = ‘Disk Write Bytes’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,13) = ‘Units’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,14) = ‘Disk Read Operations/Sec’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,15) = ‘Units’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,16) = ‘Disk Write Operations/Sec’
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item(1,17) = ‘Units’
# Cell Counter
$row_counter = 3
$column_counter = 1
foreach($resourcegroup_list_iterator in $resourcegroup_list){
#write-output “RG: ” $resourcegroup_list_iterator
$vm_list = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resourcegroup_list_iterator
foreach($vm_list_iterator in $vm_list){
write-host “Fetching performance metrics for the virtual machine: ” $vm_list_iterator.Name -ForegroundColor cyan
$percentage_cpu_data = get-azurermmetric -ResourceId $vm_list_iterator.id -TimeGrain 00:01:00 -MetricName “Percentage CPU” # Percentage
$network_in_data = get-azurermmetric -ResourceId $vm_list_iterator.id -TimeGrain 00:01:00 -MetricName “Network IN” # Bytes
$network_out_data = get-azurermmetric -ResourceId $vm_list_iterator.id -TimeGrain 00:01:00 -MetricName “Network Out” # Bytes
$disk_read_bytes_data = get-azurermmetric -ResourceId $vm_list_iterator.id -TimeGrain 00:01:00 -MetricName “Disk Read Bytes” # Bytes Per Second
$disk_write_bytes_data = get-azurermmetric -ResourceId $vm_list_iterator.id -TimeGrain 00:01:00 -MetricName “Disk Write Bytes” # Bytes Per Second
$disk_read_operations_data = get-azurermmetric -ResourceId $vm_list_iterator.id -TimeGrain 00:01:00 -MetricName “Disk Read Operations/Sec” # Count Per Second
$disk_write_operations_data = get-azurermmetric -ResourceId $vm_list_iterator.id -TimeGrain 00:01:00 -MetricName “Disk Write Operations/Sec” # Count Per Second
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $vm_list_iterator.ResourceGroupName.ToString()
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $vm_list_iterator.Name.ToString()
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $vm_list_iterator.Location.ToString()
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $percentage_cpu_data.Data[-2].Average
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = “Percentage”
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $network_in_data.Data[-2].Total
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = “Bytes”
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $network_out_data.Data[-2].Total
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = “Bytes”
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $disk_read_bytes_data.Data[-2].Average
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = “Bytes Per Second”
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $disk_write_bytes_data.Data[-2].Average
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = “Bytes Per Second”
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $disk_read_operations_data.Data[-2].Average
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = “Count Per Second”
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = $disk_write_operations_data.Data[-2].Average
$VirtualMachineWorksheet.Cells.Item($row_counter,$column_counter++) = “Count Per Second”
$row_counter = $row_counter + 1
$column_counter = 1
}
Write-Output ” ”
}
# Checking if the Inventory.xlsx already exists
if(Test-Path C:\AzurePerformanceMetrics\Performance_metrics.xlsx){
Write-Host “C:\AzurePerformanceMetrics\Performance_metrics.xlsx already exitst. Deleting the current file and creating a new one. `n” -ForegroundColor Yellow
Remove-Item C:\AzurePerformanceMetrics\Performance_metrics.xlsx
# Saving the workbook/excel file
$workbook.SaveAs(“C:\AzurePerformanceMetrics\Performance_metrics.xlsx”)
}else {
# Saving the workbook/excel file
$workbook.SaveAs(“C:\AzurePerformanceMetrics\Performance_metrics.xlsx”)
}
$excel.Quit()

 

Click here to download my PowerShell scripts for Free !!

 

Azure – Server Inventory solution

This blog post is dedicated to IT Operations team and administrators who are managing Cloud Infrastructure. The recommended practice while providing managed service to any client is to have a CMDB (Configuration Management Database), which tracks the list of servers and the corresponding details, that we are managing for the client.

However, considering the dynamic nature of the cloud environment, it is a difficult task to maintain such a database. Manually updating the list of servers/server inventory is tedious and error-prone. The only solution is to have an automated approach to this problem.

Below is my solution:

The PowerShell script will extract virtual machines and their details. In this particular case, the script will consider virtual machines, which has tags (‘owner’,’Manju’). That is, I want to manage virtual machines owned only by me. You can go ahead and make changes to the script if you have a different requirement.

Next, the script will write the data into an Azure table. Remember, that the Azure table has to be created before running the script. Another option is Azure Cosmos DB.

Next, you can upload this script to your Azure Automation account or a dedicated windows server. Then, schedule this script to run every one hour to track your server inventory.

The script uses cmdlets from the “AzureRmStorageTable” PowerShell module.

Execute “Install-Module AzureRmStorageTable” to install the module.

Note: You have to alter the script when you schedule the script. The login mechanism is different for “Azure Automation” and “Task scheduler via Windows server”. The login mechanism of the below script is to execute it directly (manually) from PowerShell console or PowerShell ISE.

 

Script:

# Author: Manjunath Rao
# Date: Febuary 13, 2018

# Install-Module AzureRmStorageTable –>> THIS MODULE NEEDED

# Login to Azure
Login-AzureRmAccount
## Code to create Azure table storage context
$azure_table_storage_account_name = “xxx”
$azure_table_name = “xxx”
$azure_table_partitionKey = “xxx”
$azure_table_rowkey = “xxx”

$azure_table_resource_group = “xxx”

$storage_account_context = (Get-AzureRmStorageAccount -ResourceGroupName $azure_table_resource_group -Name $azure_table_storage_account_name).Context

$azure_table_object = Get-AzureStorageTable -Name $azure_table_name -Context $storage_account_context

############################################

# Getting all the resource group
$resource_group_list = Get-AzureRmResourceGroup

# Iterating through the resource group
foreach($resource_group_list_iterator in $resource_group_list){

# Since the solution applies for virtual machines,
# obtain the list of virtual machines for the resource group
$virtual_machine_list = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resource_group_list_iterator.ResourceGroupName

# Proceed only when resource group contains virtual machines
if(!($virtual_machine_list -eq $null)){

# Iterate through the virtual machine list
foreach($virtual_machine_list_iterator in $virtual_machine_list){

# Creat an unique ID by concatinating ‘Resource Group name’ and ‘Virtual Machine name’
$unique_id = $resource_group_list_iterator.ResourceGroupName + $virtual_machine_list_iterator.name
#Write-Host $unique_id
$tag_list = $virtual_machine_list_iterator.Tags

$tag_list.GetEnumerator() | foreach {
#write-host $_.key
#Write-Host $_.value
#write-host “”

$partitionKey1 = $unique_id

if($_.key -eq ‘owner’ -and $_.value -eq ‘manju’) {
#write-host “true”
$virtual_machine_name = $virtual_machine_list_iterator.Name.ToString()
$virtual_machine_resource_group_name = $resource_group_list_iterator.ResourceGroupName.ToString()
$virtual_machine_location = $virtual_machine_list_iterator.Location.ToString()
$virtual_machine_size = $virtual_machine_list_iterator.HardwareProfile.VmSize.ToString()
$virtual_machine_operating_system = $virtual_machine_list_iterator.StorageProfile.ImageReference.Offer.ToString()

 

$hash = @{}
#$hash.add(‘currentDate’, $current_date)
$hash.Add(‘VMName’,$virtual_machine_resource_group_name)
$hash.Add(‘ResourceGroup’,$virtual_machine_resource_group_name)
$hash.add(‘Location’,$virtual_machine_location)
$hash.add(‘VMSize’,$virtual_machine_size)
$hash.add(‘OperatingSystem’,$virtual_machine_operating_system)

# Write data into azure table
Add-StorageTableRow -table $azure_table_object -partitionKey (“CA1”) -rowKey ([guid]::NewGuid().tostring()) -property $hash

}
}

}

}

}

 

On the other hand, if you would like to fetch inventory details, and just save it in an excel sheet, I have the perfect scripts that do the job for you:

https://manjunathrao.com/2017/12/04/powershell-generte-azure-paas-inventory/

https://manjunathrao.com/2016/12/30/powershell-generate-azure-inventory/

https://manjunathrao.com/2017/04/06/powershell-generate-aws-inventory/

 

Click here to download my PowerShell scripts for Free !!

 

 

 

Powershell – Extract user list from Azure Active Directory to an excel file

This script will authenticate to your Azure Active Directory and fetch all the user details. Finally, it will save the details to the excel sheet.

Below is the link to the script:

https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/scriptcenter/Extract-user-list-from-6cb9a93c

Below are the user attributes the script fetches:

1. Display Name

2. Object ID

3. Type

4. Principal Name

5. Role Name

6. Role Description

The excel sheet is saved as: C:\AzureADUserList\AzureADUserList.xlsx

Pre-Requisites: This script needs ‘MSOnline’ and ‘AzureRM’ PowerShell modules

Click here to download my PowerShell scripts for Free !!

 

 

PowerShell – Generate Azure PaaS Inventory

This PowerShell script helps you to maintain an inventory sheet of your Azure Platform-As-A-Service services. So that you can refer to them anytime you want.

Also, it serves a quick way to generate a report when your client needs to have a quick look at their PaaS services.

Below is the flow

  • The script logins to your Azure account and fetches the details of your Azure PaaS resources – Azure CDN and Azure WebApps.
  • It creates one worksheet for each Azure resource.
  • The user is prompted to select the subscription.Powershell Exception handling is implemented.
  • The user is again prompted if he wishes to view the excel sheet once the script is finished running.

** The script assumes you are using Powershell v5.0 and have excel module. (Basically, you should have MSOffice installed)

Below is the link to the script:

https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/scriptcenter/Azure-PaaS-inventory-using-d1872989

I have also written script to generate:

Azure IaaS Inventory

AWS IaaS Inventory

Click here to download my PowerShell scripts for Free !!

 

 

PowerShell – Install Nagios client on a remote Windows Server

As Windows Administrators, we need to install many tools on the Windows Server as part of the onboarding process. One such critical tool is Nagios, used for monitoring servers.

The onboarding process takes a heavy toll on the on-boarding enginers when we are on-boarding new client. This is because we have to install tools on 50-100s of servers. Manual installation of each installation will take ~20 minutes depending on the configuration.

The best solution to remove manual effort, human error and to increase ROI is to automate the process.

I have written a PowerShell script that does just that. You can download the script from my Microsoft Script Center repository:

Install Nagios client on a remote windows server

 

The script will install Nagios client to a remote server. It copies the MSI and the INI file to the remote computer’s C drive and then executes it. Once the execution is completed, it will copy the “nsclient.ini” file to the installed folder.

Pre-Requisites:

– The servers are to be domain joined.

– Powershell remoting to be enabled on both servers.

Next Steps:

You can enhance the script, that accepts server list and executes against all the servers.

Tested on: Windows Server 2012 R2

Note: You may have to edit the script if you are changing the name of the MSI file. The script uses: NSCP-0.4.4.19-x64.msi

 

Click here to download my PowerShell scripts for Free !!

 

 

PowerShell – List Azure Backup Items

Azure Backup is the Azure-based service you can use to back up (or protect) and restore your data in the Microsoft cloud. Azure Backup replaces your existing on-premises or off-site backup solution with a cloud-based solution that is reliable, secure, and cost-competitive.

Azure Backup offers multiple components that you download and deploy on the appropriate computer, server, or in the cloud. The component, or agent that you deploy depends on what you want to protect.

All Azure Backup components (no matter whether you’re protecting data on-premises or in the cloud) can be used to back up data to a Recovery Services vault in Azure.

You might come across a need to automate the process of generating a report every day and share it with stakeholders to keep track of your backup details.

The PowerShell script will list the “Backup Items” from your Azure subscription. And saves the data into an excel file under the folder  “C:\Backup_job_report.” The excel file will contain multiple worksheets for each “Vault” that exists. The script expects you to provide a text file containing the list of Azure Servers, for which you want to fetch the “Backup Items.”

The details include:

1. VM Resource Name

2. VM Name

3. Recovery Vault Name

4. Last Backup Status

5. Latest Recovery Point

The script is uploaded to Microsoft Technet Script Center’s repository:

List Azure Backup Items using Powershell

You can obtain this information from the Azure portal. Please traverse as shown below:

Sign in to Azure Portal >> Search and select “Recovery Services vaults” >> Select a vault >> Click on “Backup Items” under protected items >> Click on “Azure Virtual Machines”.

 

Azure

 

Click here to download my PowerShell scripts for Free !!