Azure – Install software on Azure Virtual Machine using Azure Custom Script Extension (CSE)

You may need to install a software (exe, MSI etc..) on your Azure virtual machines as per the on-boarding process. The traditional way of doing this is to RDP to your virtual machine and then install the software.

Azure and PowerShell make this task simple by introducing “Custom Script Extension (CSE)” for Azure Virtual machines. Using CSE you can install the executables without login into the servers. The process also reduces human effort by a lot, hence increasing the ROI for your team.

As an example, let us see how to deploy a BigFix client into an Azure Windows Virtual Machine:

The process requires two scripts:

Script 1: installAgent.ps1

This script does the silent installation of the agents. This script must be uploaded into Azure Storage Account along with the exe/MSI.

Script 2: triggerCSE.ps1

This script installs the CSE on the Windows Azure virtual machine. Checks if the Virtual Machine is STOPPED. If it is stopped, it will start the virtual machine, install the CSE, and then it will stop the virtual machine.

Steps to be followed

  1. Upload all the necessary files (BigFix installation files) into Azure Storage account and provide Anonymous access to the container.
  2. Upload the installAgent.ps1 PowerShell script into Azure Storage account and provide Anonymous access to the container.
  3. Execute the triggerCSE.ps1 from your laptop or you can completely automate the solution using Azure Automation Account.

 

installAgent.ps1

 

# Script to install Big Fix agents in Singapore region

# Create a directory to hold BigFix files

new-item 'c:\bigfix' -ItemType directory -force


# Copy BigFix files from Azure storage to local directory

Invoke-WebRequest -Uri https://manjutool.blob.core.windows.net/wpbigfixupdatedsingapore/clientsettings.cfg -outfile 'c:\bigfix\clientsettings.cfg'

Invoke-WebRequest -Uri https://manjutool.blob.core.windows.net/wpbigfixupdatedsingapore/masthead.afxm -outfile 'c:\bigfix\masthead.afxm'

Invoke-WebRequest -Uri https://manjutool.blob.core.windows.net/wpbigfixupdatedsingapore/BigFix-BES-Client-9.5.7.94.exe -outfile 'c:\bigfix\setup.exe'


# Execute the setup file

$arguments = "/S /v/qn"

$filepath = "c:\bigfix\setup.exe"

Start-Process $filepath $arguments -wait


 

triggerCSE.ps1

 

##### Installing BigFix client on virtual machine #####




        # Declaring variables




        # storage account name where the custom script is stored

        $storage_account_name = "<INSTERT_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME>"

        # storage account key of where the custom script is stored

        $storage_account_key = "<INSERT_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_KEY>"

        # custom script file name

        $bigfix_file_name = "installAgent.ps1"

        # container name where the custom script is stored

        $bigfix_container_name_singapore = "<INSERT_AZURE_STORAGE_CONTAINER_NAME>"

        # Assuming the state of the virtual machine is not de-allocated

        $is_dellocated = $false


        $resource_group = "<INSERT_AZURE_VIRTUAL_MACHINE_RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME>"

        $vm_name = "<INSERT_AZURE_VIRTUAL_MACHINE_NAME>"




        # Checking if the Webhook data has the Resource Group and Virtual Machine.

        if($resource_group -eq $null -or $vm_name -eq $null){

            "Either Resource Group or Virtual Machine name, not present. This could be because the input variables could be misspelled. Make sure the input names are - 'ResourceGroup' and 'VirtualMachine'. " | write-output

            exit

        }

      
        #### Checking if the Virtual Machine is a Windows machine ########

        # Obtaining the Virtual Machine object

        $vm = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $vm_name




        # Obtaining the Virtual Machine status object

        $vm_status = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $vm_name -Status




        "Displaying the status of Virtual machine...." | write-output

        $vm_status.Statuses[1].DisplayStatus | write-output

        "" | write-output

        "" | write-output

        "Checking if the VM is Windows or not. Expect some output below if the Virtual machine is Windows... If you DONOT GET ANY OUTPUT, STOP EXECUTING..." | write-output

        $vm.OSProfile.WindowsConfiguration | write-output

       

        if($vm.OSProfile.WindowsConfiguration -eq $null){

            "The Virtual machine is either a custom image or is not Windows Virtual Machine. Cannot proceed with installing Custom Script Extenstion.. " | write-output

            exit

        }


<#




NOTE: IF THE VIRTUAL MACHINE IS STOPPED-DEALLOCATED, THIS SCRIPT WILL START THE VIRTUAL MACHINE, INSTALL AGENTS AND WILL DE-ALLOCATE IT




#>

        ######## Checking the status of the Virtual Machine ########

        <#

            VM Generalized --> Do not take any action. Exit Execution

            VM Deallocated --> Start the Virtual Machine

            VM Running --> Do not take any action, Proceed with Execution

        #>


        if($vm_status.Statuses[1].DisplayStatus -eq "VM Generalized"){

            "Virtual Machine is in the GENERALIZED state. Do not proceed further... " | write-output

            "" | write-output

            "" | write-output

exit

        }


        if($vm_status.Statuses[1].DisplayStatus -eq "VM deallocated"){

            "Virtual Machine is STOPPED. Starting the virtual machine... " | write-output

            $is_dellocated = $true

            $vm | Start-AzureRmVM

            "Successfully started Virtual Machine.." | write-output

            ""| write-output

            "" | write-output

        }


        if($vm_status.Statuses[1].DisplayStatus -eq "VM running"){

            "Virtual Machine is already RUNNING. Proceeding with agents installation" | write-output

            "" | write-output

            "" | write-output

        }


      

        # Checking if the virtual machine already has a Custom Script Extension




        $vm = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $vm_name

        $vm_status = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $vm_name -Status

        $vm_extensions = $vm.Extensions


        foreach($vm_extensions_iterator in $vm_extensions){

            if($vm_extensions_iterator.VirtualMachineExtensionType -eq "CustomScriptExtension"){

                "Removing the CSE..." | write-output

                Remove-AzureRmVMCustomScriptExtension -Name $vm_extensions_iterator.Name -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -VMName $vm_name -force

                "Removed  the CSE " | write-output

                "" | write-output

                "" | write-output

            }




        }


        # Re-creating the Virtual Machine object, since one of the above condition - starts the virtual machine

        $vm = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $vm_name

        $vm_status = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $vm_name -Status


        ########### Installing BIGFIX client via Azure Custom Script Extension ###########

        if($vm_status.Statuses[1].DisplayStatus -eq "VM running" -and $vm.OSProfile.WindowsConfiguration -ne $null){

            "Installing BigFix extension..." | write-output

            # azure powershell cmdlet to execute add the custom script extension and to execute the powershell file

            Set-AzureRmVMCustomScriptExtension -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Location $vm.Location -VMName $vm_name -Name "ibm_bigfix_agent_install_extension" -TypeHandlerVersion "1.1" -StorageAccountName $storage_account_name -StorageAccountKey $storage_account_key -FileName $bigfix_file_name -ContainerName $bigfix_container_name_singapore

        }


        "waiting for 10 seconds..." | write-output

        "" | write-output

        "" | write-output


        Start-Sleep -s 10


        ######## Stopping the Virtual machine that we had started ########



        if($is_dellocated -eq $true){

            "We had started the virtual machine before installing the BigFix agent. STOPPING the virtual machine to preserve the initial state..." | write-output


            $vm | Stop-AzureRmVM -force

            "Successfully stopped the virtual machine" | write-output

            "" | write-output

            "" | write-output

        }

 

 

As an enhancement, you can add additional checks, create a log file and have it uploaded to another Storage Account. Or, create an Azure Storage Table, and write the updates to it tracking how many virtual machines the CSE is installed.

 

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Azure – Copy Data disk from one Azure virtual machine to another

 

Just like any other computer, virtual machines in Azure use disks as a place to store an operating system, applications, and data. All Azure virtual machines have at least two disks – a Windows operating system disk and a temporary disk. The operating system disk is created from an image, and both the operating system disk and the image are virtual hard disks (VHDs) stored in an Azure storage account. Virtual machines also can have one or more data disks, that are also stored as VHDs.

Consider a case where you have configured an Azure virtual machine that hosts applications and you have saved an application data in multiple data disks. Now you want to create multiple virtual machines or copy all those data disks to other virtual machines.

You can now perform a copy Data Disk operation from one Azure virtual machine to another Azure virtual machine by using a PowerShell script.

Download the script

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PowerShell – Delete Azure blobs older than X number of days

As a cost optimization strategy, organizations decide to retain data that are certain days old and delete the old data.

The same strategy can be implemented in Azure Storage. Let’s say if our application requires data that are 60 days old, then our approach is to retain only 60 days of data. And delete any blob that is older than 60 days.

This script deletes Azure blobs that are older than X days. Here ‘X’ is the number of days that you want to retain the data. (60, as stated in my example)

Download the script

You can create an Azure Automation Runbook from this script and schedule it to run every day. So, you will not be billed for the unwanted data.

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PowerShell – Fetch Azure Page Blobs from an Azure subscription

This script fetches the details of PAGE BLOB across the Azure subscription and saves it as a CSV file. The CSV file will be saved under the location from where the script was run.

The general use case could be to understand how many VHD files are present in your subscription. These could be your OS Disks, Datadisks or your VM snapshots.

Download Script Link

If you are looking for a script that generates a report for “unattached” managed and un-managed disks, then please visit the below link:

AZURE – GENERATE REPORT FOR UNATTACHED AZURE DISKS (MANAGED AND UN-MANAGED)

 

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Azure – Generate report for unattached Azure disks (managed and un-managed)

When you delete a virtual machine (VM) in Azure, by default, any disks that are attached to the VM aren’t deleted. This feature helps to prevent data loss due to the unintentional deletion of VMs. After a VM is deleted, you will continue to pay for unattached disks.

Unattached MANAGED disks:

When a managed disk is attached to a VM, the ManagedBy property contains the resource ID of the VM. When a managed disk is unattached, the ManagedBy property is null. The script examines all the managed disks in an Azure subscription. When the script locates a managed disk with the ManagedBy property set to null, the script determines that the disk is unattached.

Unattached UN-MANAGED disks:

When an unmanaged disk is attached to a VM, the LeaseStatus property is set to Locked. When an unmanaged disk is unattached, the LeaseStatus property is set to Unlocked. The script examines all the unmanaged disks in all the Azure storage accounts in an Azure subscription. When the script locates an unmanaged disk with a LeaseStatus property set to Unlocked, the script determines that the disk is unattached.

SCRIPT:

Download the script here

PowerShell script to generate a report of unattached VHD disks. This script will create two files – unattached_managed_disks.csv, unattached_un_managed_disks.csv

These two files will contain details about VHD files that are not attached to an Azure virtual machine.

NOTE: You have to login into your account before running the script. “login-azurermaccount” to log in to your account.

You can use the generated CSV to better manage your Azure infrastructure. Understand why the disks are not in use and take an informed decision on whether you want to delete or re-use them. Thus helping you to identify resources that are not being utilized and to reduce cost.

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Azure – Who de-allocated my virtual machine?

Many a time we might want to know details about certain operations performed on our Azure resources.

Once such case study would be to track how many virtual machines are being de-allocated by users, so we can make a decision on not to monitor them.

I have written a simple script that would make the tracking easy.

Download the script

 

This script will fetch information of certain Azure operation against Azure resources and create a CSV file. Specifically, this script will create a CSV file that contains a list of Azure operations that de-allocates an Azure virtual machine.

You may alter the IF condition statement to produce desired results.

Example, fetch operational logs for Azure Storage only. Or fetch operational logs for re-start VM or any operation on any Azure resource.

The CSV file will be saved in the same folder from where you run the script and will be saved as “Azure_activity_logs.csv”

 

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