Author: Manjunath

Manjunath is an IT enthusiast with experience in Cloud services platform and PowerShlell scripting. He blogs about public cloud platform and scripting techniques.

PowerShell – Add Azure AD group as User in Azure SQL Database

As an administrator, you may need to provide access to multiple people against multiple resources in Azure. One such example, is to provide access to an Azure SQL database. As a best practice, you might have created a separate Azure AD group to combine all the users that will need access to a Azure SQL database. Example, “Analytics_Devs” group need access to “Analytics-DB”. Similarly, we might have multiple combination of different Azure AD groups requiring access to different Azure SQL Databases.

The above task can be performed manually, however, it is tedious and error prone when it has to be done multiple times and repetitively.

As a solution to the above problem, I have written a PowerShell script that will automate the task for us. You can also use the PowerShell script as part of your CI/CD pipeline.

 

Download the script by clicking here.

 

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Azure – Provision Azure Virtual Machine with UnManaged disks

Microsoft has introduced a new type of disk called “Managed” disk wherein Azure manages the disk and the underlying storage account overhead for you. And, Microsoft recommends you create Azure virtual machines with “managed” disks, which is straightforward.

However, you might come across scenarios where your organization/client may require creating an Azure virtual machine with “unmanaged” disks. Use the below code to create an Azure virtual machine with “unmanaged” disks.

$location = "EastUS2"
$rgname = "manjuResourceGroup"
New-AzureRmResourceGroup -Name manjuResourceGroup -Location $location

# Create a subnet configuration
$subnetConfig = New-AzureRmVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig -Name mySubnet -AddressPrefix 192.168.1.0/24

# Create a virtual network
$vnet = New-AzureRmVirtualNetwork -ResourceGroupName manjuResourceGroup -Location $location `
    -Name MYvNET -AddressPrefix 192.168.0.0/16 -Subnet $subnetConfig

# Create a public IP address and specify a DNS name
$pip = New-AzureRmPublicIpAddress -ResourceGroupName manjuResourceGroup -Location $location `

    -AllocationMethod Static -IdleTimeoutInMinutes 4 -Name "mypublicdns$(Get-Random)"

# Create an inbound network security group rule for port 3389
$nsgRuleRDP = New-AzureRmNetworkSecurityRuleConfig -Name myNetworkSecurityGroupRuleRDP  -Protocol Tcp `
    -Direction Inbound -Priority 1000 -SourceAddressPrefix '125.16.236.160' -SourcePortRange * -DestinationAddressPrefix * `
    -DestinationPortRange 3389 -Access Allow

# Create an inbound network security group rule for port 80
$nsgRuleWeb = New-AzureRmNetworkSecurityRuleConfig -Name myNetworkSecurityGroupRuleWWW  -Protocol Tcp `
    -Direction Inbound -Priority 1001 -SourceAddressPrefix '125.16.236.160' -SourcePortRange * -DestinationAddressPrefix * `
    -DestinationPortRange 80 -Access Allow

# Create a network security group
$nsg = New-AzureRmNetworkSecurityGroup -ResourceGroupName manjuResourceGroup -Location $location `
    -Name myNetworkSecurityGroup -SecurityRules $nsgRuleRDP,$nsgRuleWeb

# Create a virtual network card and associate with public IP address and NSG
$nic = New-AzureRmNetworkInterface -Name myNic -ResourceGroupName manjuResourceGroup -Location $location `
    -SubnetId $vnet.Subnets[0].Id -PublicIpAddressId $pip.Id -NetworkSecurityGroupId $nsg.Id

# Define a credential object
$cred = Get-Credential

#VM config
$vmsize = "Standard_DS2"
$vmName="myVM"
$vm = New-AzureRmVMConfig -VMName $vmName -VMSize $vmSize
$pubName = ”MicrosoftWindowsServer”
$offerName = ”WindowsServer”
$skuName = ”2016-Datacenter”
$vm = Set-AzureRmVMOperatingSystem -VM $vm -Windows -ComputerName $vmName -Credential $cred
$vm = Set-AzureRmVMSourceImage -VM $vm -PublisherName $pubName -Offer $offerName -Skus $skuName -Version "latest"
$vm = Add-AzureRmVMNetworkInterface -VM $vm -Id $NIC.Id

# Create a new storage account
New-AzureRmStorageAccount -ResourceGroupName "manjuResourceGroup" -AccountName "manjustorageaccount" -Location $location -SkuName "Standard_LRS"

# Disk setup
$diskName = ”manju-disk”
$storageaccount = "manjustorageaccount"
$STA = Get-AzureRmStorageAccount -ResourceGroupName $rgName -Name $storageAccount
$OSDiskUri = $STA.PrimaryEndpoints.Blob.ToString() + "vhds/" + $diskName? + ".vhd"
$vm = Set-AzureRmVMOSDisk -VM $vm -Name $diskName -VhdUri $OSDiskUri -CreateOption fromImage

# Create the virtual machine
New-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName manjuResourceGroup -Location $location -VM $vm

 

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Azure – Expand OS Drive for Azure Virtual Machine

When you create an Azure Virtual Machine, it comes with an OS drive having a default size. The size is different for Windows and Linux machines. ~128GB and ~30GB for Windows and Linux machines respectively. The OS drive can be expanded to a maximum size of 2TB as of this writing. Use the below code to allocate space to your Azure VM’s OS drive. After executing the code, login to the virtual machine and expand (Disk Management for Windows) the drive using the newly allocated space.

 

Resize a Managed Disk:

 

## Resize OS disk size for Managed Disk

# Set Resource Group and Virtual Machine name
$resourceGroupName = 'my_resource_group_name'
$virtualMachineName = 'my_virtual_machine_name'

# Create VM reference object
$vm = Get-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -Name $virtualMachineName

# Stop the Virtual Machine
Stop-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -Name $virtualMachineName

# Create a reference to the Managed disk and set the size as required
$disk= Get-AzureRmDisk -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -DiskName $vm.StorageProfile.OsDisk.Name
$disk.DiskSizeGB = 1023
Update-AzureRmDisk -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -Disk $disk -DiskName $disk.Name

# Start the Azure Virtual Machine
Start-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -Name $virtualMachineName

 

 

Resize an Unmanaged Disk:

 

## Resize OS disk size for Unmanaged Disk

# Set Resource Group and Virtual Machine name
$resourceGroupName = 'my-resource-group-name'
$virtualMachineName = 'my-vm-name'

# Create VM reference object
$vm = Get-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -Name $virtualMachineName

# Stop the Virtual Machine
Stop-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -Name $virtualMachineName

# Create a reference to the Unmanaged disk and set the size as required
$vm.StorageProfile.OSDisk.DiskSizeGB = 1023
Update-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -VM $vm

# Start the Azure Virtual Machine
Start-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -Name $virtualMachineName

 

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Azure – Attach and Initialize Data disk to Azure Virtual Machine

When you create an Azure windows virtual machine, it comes a default OS drive (C:\) and a temporary drive (D:\). An azure virtual machine allows you to attach a data disk to it to expand the storage. The number of data disks that can be attached to the VM depends on the Size and Family of the VM.

You can automate the process of attaching the data disk and initializing it using two scripts:

Script 1: initializePartition.ps1

This script contains the code to initialize the RAW partition.

Script 2: attachAndInstallCSE.ps1

This script will attach the data disk to the Azure windows virtual machine. It also installs the Custom Script Extension to the virtual machine.

 

initializePartition.ps1

$disks = Get-Disk | Where partitionstyle -eq 'raw' | sort number
    $letters = 70..89 | ForEach-Object { [char]$_ }
    $count = 0
    $labels = "data1","data2"

    foreach ($disk in $disks) {
        $driveLetter = $letters[$count].ToString()
        $disk |
        Initialize-Disk -PartitionStyle MBR -PassThru |
        New-Partition -UseMaximumSize -DriveLetter $driveLetter |
        Format-Volume -FileSystem NTFS -NewFileSystemLabel $labels[$count] -Confirm:$false -Force
    $count++
    }

 

attachAndInstallCSE.ps1

 

# Declaringvariables
$resourceGroupName = 'resourceGroupName'
$virtualMachineName = 'virtualMachineName'
$location = 'East US'
$storageType = 'Premium_LRS'
$dataDiskName = $virtualMachineName + '_datadisk1'

# Create a new managed data disk
$diskConfig = New-AzureRmDiskConfig -SkuName $storageType -Location $location -CreateOption Empty -DiskSizeGB 128
$dataDisk1 = New-AzureRmDisk -DiskName $dataDiskName -Disk $diskConfig -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName

# Get the virtual machine reference
$vm = Get-AzureRmVM -Name $virtualMachineName -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName

# Update the VM reference by adding the data disk
$vm = Add-AzureRmVMDataDisk -VM $vm -Name $dataDiskName -CreateOption Attach -ManagedDiskId $dataDisk1.Id -Lun 1

# Update the virtual machine
Update-AzureRmVM -VM $vm -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName

## Install the Custom Script Extension that inturn calls the initializePartition.ps1
$location = "East US 2"

# The name you want to give for the CSE
$extensionName = "extensionName"

$fileName = "initializePartition.ps1"

# Storage Account where the initializePartition.ps1 is present
$storageAccountName = "<INSERT_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME>"

# Primary Access Key of Storage Account where the initializePartition.ps1 is present
$storageAccountAccessPrimaryKey = "<INSERT_STORAGE_PRIMARY_ACCESS_KEY>"

# Storage Account container where the initializePartition.ps1 is present
$storageAccountContainerName = "<INSERT_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_CONTAINER_NAME>"

Set-AzureRmVMCustomScriptExtension -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -Location $location -VMName $virtualMachineName -Name $extensionName -TypeHandlerVersion "1.4" -StorageAccountName $storageAccountName -StorageAccountKey $storageAccountAccessPrimaryKey -FileName $fileName -ContainerName $storageAccountContainerName

 

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Azure – Understand your Azure resource utilization using Azure Metrics

Understanding resource utilization is very crucial in determining how your resources are performing. Using this data, you can them make decisions on cost optimization. From my experience, clients are very keen on having a scheduled Resource Utilization Report.

If you are working in an infrastructure team, then your report for a virtual machine may include, CPU utilization, memory, disk usage, network in/Out etc.,

You can use Azure PowerShell to download Azure Insight Metric Data.

As an example, below code shows you how to retrieve CPU Utilization data for an Azure virtual machine.

 

# Get the virtual machine object
$vm = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName "automationResourceGroup" -Name "hybridworker"

# Get the resource ID for the virtual machine
$resourceID = $vm.Id

# Retrieve Azure Insight metric definitions for virtual machines
Get-AzureRmMetricDefinition –ResourceId $resourceID -DetailedOutput

 

Output of the above cmdlet will fetch a lot of metrics. I have selected the “Percentage CPU”.

sourceId             : /subscriptions/aaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeee/resourceGroups/automation/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/hybridworker

Name                   :

                             LocalizedValue : Percentage CPU

                             Value          : Percentage CPU

                        

Unit                   : Percent

PrimaryAggregationType : Average

Id                     : /subscriptions/aaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeee/resourceGroups/automation/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/hybridworker/providers/microsoft.insights/metricdefinitions/Percentage CPU

 

The “Value” will give you the correct Metric Name.

 

Below code will pull the CPU utilization of the virtual machine for the last 40 minutes.

$endTime = Get-Date
$startTime = $endTime.AddMinutes(-40)
$timeGrain = '00:01:00'
$metricName = 'Percentage CPU'
$metricData = Get-AzureRmMetric -ResourceId $resourceID -TimeGrain $timeGrain -StartTime $startTime -EndTime $endTime -MetricNames $metricName
$metricData.Data

 

I have shown you how to fetch one such metric for an Azure resource (Azure virtual machine in this case). Similarly, you can fetch metrics for any Azure resource by obtaining the relevant “resourceID” and fetching the appropriate Azure Metric Definition.

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Azure -Forgot Azure Virtual machine password?

While troubleshooting RDP issues, one of the approaches is to connect to the Azure windows machine using its local admin credentials. What if you forgot the credentials? Use the below code to reset them using VMAccess extension and PowerShell:

 

$resourceGroupName = "<ENTER_RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME>"
$virtualMachineName = "<ENTER_VIRTUAL_MACHINE_NAME>"
$location = "<ENTER_VM_LOCATION>"
Set-AzureRmVMAccessExtension -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -location $location -virtualMachineName $virtualMachineName -Credential (get-credential) -typeHandlerVersion "2.0" -Name VMAccessAgent

 

Post troubleshooting, you conclude that by resetting the RDP configuration, the RDP issue will get resolved. How do you reset the RDP configuration, when you are not able to RDP? You may cause service disruption if you decide to restart or redeploy the VM to reset the RDP configuration.

Azure allows you to reset the RDP configuration without logging into the Azure windows virtual machine.

Use the below code to reset the Remote Desktop Services Configuration:

The code resets the access extension named “myVMAccess” on the VM named “myVM” in the “myResourceGroup” resource group:

Set-AzureRmVMAccessExtension -ResourceGroupName "myResoureGroup" -VMName "myVM" -Name "myVMAccess" -Location WestUS -typeHandlerVersion "2.0" -ForceRerun

 

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Azure – TAG Azure Virtual Machines?

In a cloud environment, the effective way to organize and manage your infrastructure is by tagging your resources. Example, if your client has multiple silos like marketing, sales etc., and your cost model is different to each silo, tagging the resources provides an effective way to measure and manage the cost for your client.

Use the below code to TAG your Azure virtual machine:

$resource_group = "resourceGroupName"
$vm_name = "virtualMachineName"
$tags = (Get-AzureRmResource -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $vm_name).Tags
$tags += @{toolsinstalled="true"}
Set-AzureRmResource -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $vm_name -ResourceType "Microsoft.Compute/VirtualMachines" -Tag $tags -Force

 

You may tag other resources (Storage Account, Virtual Network etc.,) by providing the correct values to “-ResourceType” parameter.

If you have a set of standard tags and you want to tag all virtual machines in a resource group, then use the code below as a template:

 

Param(

  ## Parameter declaration

  [string]$resource_group,


  # Tag values passed as a parameter

  [string]$rtb_status_tag_value,

  [string]$os_type_tag_value,

  [string]$environment_tag_value,

  [string]$build_date_tag_value,

  [string]$project_name_tag_value,

  [string]$support_type_tag_value

)


$azure_vm_list = get-azurermvm -ResourceGroupName $resource_group

foreach($azure_vm_list_iterator in $azure_vm_list){

$tags = (Get-AzureRmResource -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $azure_vm_list_iterator.name).Tags

# Creating a hash table with tag name and value

$tags += @{"RTB status"=$rtb_status_tag_value}

$tags += @{"OS Type"=$os_type_tag_value}

$tags += @{"Environment"=$environment_tag_value}

$tags += @{"Built Date"=$build_date_tag_value}

$tags += @{"Project Name"=$project_name_tag_value}

$tags += @{"Support Type"=$support_type_tag_value}


"Setting tags"| write-output

Set-AzureRmResource -ResourceGroupName $resource_group -Name $azure_vm_list_iterator.name -ResourceType "Microsoft.Compute/VirtualMachines" -Tag $tags -ApiVersion '2017-12-01' -force

}

 

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